Requires nutrient addition at a much greater level than phytoremediation; applicable to organics only. Some examples of plants used in phyoremediation practices are water hyacinths Eichhornia crassipespoplar tress Papulus sppforage kochia Kochia sppalfalfa Medicago sativaKentucky bluegrass Poa pratensisScirpus spp, coontail Ceratophyllum demersvm L.
It not only helps to produce bio-ore, but also finds great application to completely eradicate toxicants from the contaminated sites. After exposure to Cd or Cu, PCs were found in yeast, algae and lower and higher plants Cobbett, The ability to tolerate large concentrations of heavy metals is a rare phenomenon in the plant kingdom as a whole, The advantages of phytoremedation is widespread in particular plant groups: As plants are used in environmental clean-ups, it takes a long period of time than other remediation approaches, requiring a long term commitment for maintenance or the process may be effective seasonally.
Whereas in the human liver enzymes such as cytochrome Ps are responsible for the initial reactions, in plants enzymes such as peroxidases, phenoloxidases, esterases and The advantages of phytoremedation carry out the same role.
Generally these hyperaccumulators are seeded or transplanted in contaminated sites to extract these heavy metals by using various agronomic practices. Tables of hyperaccumulators[ edit ].
Phytoextraction removes metals or organics from soils by accumulating them in the biomass of plants. Plants used to decontaminate soils must do one or more of the following: UGT1A1 and glutathione addition reactions occur on reactive centres of the xenobiotic. The pollutants remain absorbed in or adsorbed to the roots.
These are then harvested to remove the plants together with the pollutants that have accumulated in their tissues. The most tolerant and vigorously growing plants are analyzed for their contaminant content and the best of them are bred to produce a line of improved plants.
It is also a way of concentrating and harvesting valuable metals that are thinly dispersed in the ground, and offers an attractive option for the remediation of brownfield sites. Peuke Heinz Rennenberg 1Andreas D.
Phytoremediation Phytoremediation is the term that refers to the use of plants for cleaning up contaminants in soil, groundwater, surface water and air. Initial experiments with transgenic plants have shown that they are indeed efficient in drawing metals from heavily contaminated soils.
Another advantage of phytoremediation is the reduction or elimination of secondary air or water borne wastes as the plants provide ground cover, which stabilizes the soil and reduces wind or water erosion , Wind blown dust and erosion result in exposure pathways of direct inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of food contaminated by deposition of suspended matter onto food plants , If hyperaccumulators are used, their biomass can be disposed of by incineration thus reducing the mass and volume of waste, which has to be deposited at landfills.
Other Considerations As with any new industry, much is unknown about the long-term effects of phytomining. The amount of hyperaccumulators available is limited and for some heavy metals, plants have yet to be found. Usually plants absorb these elements from the soil with the help of the dense root system and later transport them to the shoots.
Limited knowledge of plant metabolic pathways and the mechanisms involved in tolerance are certain other drawbacks which restrict the use of plants as a potential alternative for environmental remediation.
It usually requires nutrient addition, and mass transfer is limited. Cleaning up of contaminated sites using standard strategies is expensive. Hyperaccumulators often accumulate only one specific element, which excludes their use to sites with multiple contaminations.
Peuke 1 and Heinz Rennenberg 1 Andreas D. As for the contaminated sites, phytoremediation provides a useful tool for sites, which cannot be readily remediated by other methods, e. Often these plants show slow growth rates and small production of biomass. Transfers contaminants to landfill; does not treat.Advantages & Disadvantages of Phytomining By Greg Day; Updated July 25, Phytomining describes the production of a metal crop by using high-biomass plants, which are plants that produce energy or a usable resource when burned.
The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are.
Phytoremediation on the other hand is cost effective; the cost was estimated to be $10, per acre, while it was $ for treatment of 1 ton soil and $ per 1, gal of aquatic waste (Suresh and Ravishankar ).
Home» Biology Articles» Biotechnology» Green Biotechnology» Phytoremediation (a lecture)» Advantages and disadvantages Table of contents Etymology and definition. Phytoremediation term is derived from two generic terms including ‘phyto’ means plant and ‘remediation’ means impeding environmental damage.
Phytoremediation is an assembly of technologies, using a group of plants for remediation of soils, water, sludge which get sediment with different types inorganic and organic contaminants. Phytoremediation is a technology which can be applied in situ without moving or excavating large amounts of contaminated soil and leaves the topsoil in an undisturbed and usable condition .
It uses solar energy and is in general easy to apply.Download